Saturday, December 20, 2008

Honghe Nature Reserve - Chinese tourism scenic spots

Heilongjiang Honghe National Nature Reserve is located in the hinterland of the Sanjiang Plain in Heilongjiang Province, with Jiang Fuyuan County and the city at the junction with a total area of 21835.7 hectares. Location for the East 133o34'38 "-133o46'29", latitude 47o42'18 "-47o52'00" Heilongjiang River is located in the same city and at the junction of Fuyuan County, covering an area of 21,835 hectares, in 1984 by the Heilongjiang Provincial People's Government approved the establishment in 1996, was promoted to the national level, mainly for the protection of the original marsh ecosystem and rare birds.

  Heilongjiang is the Honghe National Nature Reserve 19 After 4 years of Heilongjiang Provincial People's Government approved the establishment of provincial-level nature reserves, the approval of the State Council in 1996 was promoted to National Nature Reserve. The main protected areas in order to protect aquatic and terrestrial life and wetlands and their habitats common component of wetland ecosystems, as well as Oriental white stork and red-crowned cranes, white-naped crane, swan, etc. Rare endangered animals mainly wetland nature reserve.

Honghe National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang is China's Sanjiang Plain of the most biodiversity-rich areas, and at the same time migratory birds in Northeast Asia to the South Beiqian important breeding grounds and to stop each year to the breeding of aquatic birds for several 100,000 There are 284 kinds of wild animals, 174 kinds of birds, including rare and endangered national wildlife: Oriental white stork, black stork and red-crowned crane, white crane, white-tailed sea eagle, Steller's sea eagle, eagle Ukraine, swans, mandarin ducks, Small mouth, such as grouse 10; there are 1012 kinds of wild plants, including rare and endangered wild country There are complex: soybean field, Ash, walnut, Ciwujia, yellow tiller, such as Astragalus 6. Otherwise, "Sino-Japanese migratory birds and habitat protection agreement" by both sides to protect the birds, 97 species; "China-Australia migratory birds and habitat protection agreement" by both sides to protect the birds there are 15.

First, the natural conditions:

Honghe National Nature Reserve in Heilongjiang for the deposition of red Sanjiang Plain, flat, high-southwest of the northeast low, the relative height difference between 3 meters from the southwest to the northeast was micro-tilt. Gradient on the ground for 1 /5000 ~ 1 /10000, according to the Department of terrain Divided into high and low terraces and flood plain of the two types.

(1) a terrace: the protection area in the region, without any cutting phenomenon. A1 +1 Q3 from the Pleistocene alluvial, Lake dual plot, the surface coverage 5.65 to 14.5 m clay, clay Asia, in order to swamp more depression , Clay concentrated along the right bank of the river uplift the local terrain, the relative height from 1 to 1.2 meters.

(2) low flood plain: the distribution of rivers in the dense, green fertile river on both sides of the Koran, the strip was, tadpole-like distribution, with a terrace bordering phase, the flood plain by heavy swamp, that is, a + b Q4, for the new Marsh sediments plot.

Soil protected areas for white marsh soil and soil slurry.

White pulp Kong is divided into Turkish territory to white pulp, white pulp meadow soil and latent white pulp of the three sub-types of soil. An area of 11311.18 hectares, accounting for 51.8 percent of the total area. Pulp soil mainly in the island forest, thick black 10 to 20 cm, a small amount of the current development, returning farmland to forest plans. Meadow Albic soil for the flat area, the growth of lobular type of camphor weed. Latent white pulp soil, the distribution of low-lying, low-land, fertile soil.

Swamp soil mainly concentrated in River flood land, an area of 4105.1 hectares, accounting for 18.8 percent of the total area.

Honghe Nature Reserve along the three rivers is a moist temperate climate zone, with obvious characteristics of the temperate monsoon climate, the long winter, the cold snowy, windy spring weather, hot summer, autumn Short, the average annual temperature of 1.9? C, the coldest month average temperature -23.4? C, the hottest month average temperature 22.4? C, extreme minimum temperature of -39.1? C, extreme maximum temperature 40? C, 10? C effective temperature 2165 -- 2624? C, sunshine hours for 2356 Time. Average annual precipitation for the 585mm, 50% ~ 70% of the rainfall concentrated in the 7 to September, heavy rain and more concentrated in the summer, the maximum daily amount of rains of up to 75mm, moderate rain more frequently. The average years of evaporation to 1166mm. Multi-year north-west wind, plant growth period more than the southwest wind, the average annual For the four-speed, maximum wind speed of up to 24m /s. The freezing of the year for a period of 7 months or so, deep-frozen swamp vegetation 80 ~ 160mm, the largest deep-frozen soil layer for the 2.0 ~ 2.2m. General in the early frost in late September, the end-cream in the middle of May, 114 frost-free period to 150 days, the average years of Frosty period for 131 days.


Second, the plant resources:

Honghe National Nature Reserve, a unique natural conditions, abundant vegetation types, is a precious plant resources. According to statistics, there are 103 Section 1012 kinds of higher plants, planting seeds 719 kinds, 31 kinds of ferns, lichens, mosses 262 kinds of plants; countries rare and endangered wild plants are soybean, Ash, walnut, Astragalus, Huang tiller, and so on Ciwujia 6. Many other plants for medicinal, edible and as a nectar source. A total of 11 types: there are 253 kinds of medicinal plants, such as Gomi , Acanthopanax, gentian, peony, and so on; there are 19 kinds of fruit plants, such as the Shan grapes, hazelnut, and so on Ciwujia; feed plants, 54 species, such as lobular Zhang, lasiocarpa, and so on; Hill 9 kinds of wild plants, such as Day lily, dandelion, mushrooms and so on; has 54 kinds of plant fiber, such as reeds, such as camphor lobular; oil plants Catalpa peach, wild soybean, field peas, such as Xanthium; kind of pesticide plant Cimicifuga, quinoa, cotton, etc. Lin line group; aromatic oil is on a lily of the valley, Motherwort, mugwort, such as iris; tanning The categories are white gourd Water , Pulsatilla, such as Euphorbia; nectar source plants are mainly Su Mao water, water Su, Yoo sebjet, linden tree, and so on; forest resources there are trees, shrubs There are common oak tree, birch, poplar, Ash, such as hazelnut and Lespedeza.


Third, animal resources:

According to a survey of birds in Heilongjiang Honghe National Nature Reserve, 16 heads of 174 Division 43, 11, head of veterinary 5 Section 33, Home a deer are a protected species; second national animal protection have red deer, camels, lynx, black bear, brown bear, such as otters and 7. The economic value of the larger animals have a wolf, badger-like animal, the red fox, leopard cat, ferret Ling, Ai ferret, Huang You northeast rabbit, Paozai, hedgehogs, wild boar, squirrel, muskrat, such as 13, especially a few Paozai , In the year 100 more than Xuetu, muskrat can be seen everywhere.

Records from the years of investigation, the District 6 Fish Division 16, is the main loach, an old man fish, carp, such as sub-Ga teeth.


Heilongjiang Honghe National Nature Reserve is reflected North Sanjiang Plain wetlands of the original picture of inland wetland and water ecosystems types of nature reserves. At the same time, China's Sanjiang Plain is a "microcosm of the" typical set it, rarity and diversity in one, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Global Environment Fund (GEF), the State Forestry (SFA) as "Chinese wetland biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of the" demonstration zone in the Sanjiang Plain. Protected areas in January 2002 by the International Convention on Wetlands Organization for the approval of Wetlands of International Importance, China has become the only 21 one of Wetlands of International Importance. This area is located in the Sanjiang Plain in the Northeast, the region is flat, broad flood plain, poor soil infiltration, vertical and horizontal surface rivers, the foam spread all over marsh to retain the Sanjiang Plain typical of the original swamp natural ecosystems, is the Sanjiang Plain marsh landscape of Zen wrestle Que. To protect the region's original vegetation remains, in order to The swamp vegetation and aquatic vegetation in the main island between Lin distribution. This area is rich in animal and plant resources, higher plants have 590 kinds of Section 99, in which state protection of endangered plants have a yellow tiller, Ash, Walnut Catalpa, such as wild soybean 4. There are 210 kinds of vertebrates, of which 27 species of mammals, birds 64, 3 kinds of amphibians, 16 species of fish, included in the key state-protected wild animals are red-crowned crane, white stork, white-tailed sea eagle, swans, lynx, otter, and other 14, as well as red-crowned cranes, white storks, and other rare birds One of the breeding. Honghe the establishment of protected areas for the protection of the Sanjiang Plain wetlands are rare birds Very important.

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